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Drawing of a Typical Jet Diffuser Layout

Jet Injector chemical diffuser typical arrangement

Details the General Arrangement of a typical multi-orifice injector set-up with carry water

chemical diffusersDownload this paper (23 kb)


Batch Mixing Using a Venturi Eductor

Batch mixing & dilution using venturi eductor

Details the General Arrangement of a Batch Dilution System Using a Venturi Eductor

Batch Dilution Download this paper (23 kb)


Sizing Porous Gas/Liquid Injectors and Spargers

sizing porous metal injectors and spargers for gas liquid diffusion

Provides information on sizing of porous metal injectors and tank spargers for diffusing gases such as CO2 or O2 or air into liquids

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Continuous In-Line Mixing of Chemicals



in-line mixing of chemicals with dilution system

Details the General Arrangement of an In-Line Mixing System Using a Venturi Eductor

Batch Dilution Download this paper (25 kb)



In-line Dilution of Chemicals Using a Kidney Loop Predilution Approach

This method uses a side loop for diluting viscous chemicals such as concentrated sulfuric acid.  The motive force is provided by using a slightly closed valve across the main line (alternatively the kidney loop piping can be faced upstream on the inlet and downstream at the outlet to create a velocity pressure).  An injection quill is used to inject the diluted sulfuric acid into the larger pipeline.  As the viscosity is reduced in the concetrated acid to "near water" viscosity, the acid will now easily disperse into the main pipeline flow.

 dilution of sulfuric acid by using a predilution system

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 Adjusting the pH of a Cooling Tower Basin with a Concentrated Sulfuric Acid Diffuser

Adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a cooling tower reservoir or basin for pH control can be a challenge.  It is easy to overshoot the amount of acid added, because the acid tends to sink to the bottom of the basin and not mix very well due to the density and viscosity of the acid.  The acid can cause damage to the basin if it is not mixed effectively

We suggest using a multiple head spray diffuser similar to the enclosed drawing.  This diffuser includes an integrated mixer that ensures a dilute acid is evenly distributed across the span of the basin or reservoir.

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Determining the Mixing Energy of an Injector or Diffuser. Calculating the G value of an Injector or Diffuser

injector mixing

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Chemical Injection and Sampling
Chemical Injection and Sampling
Chemical Injection and Sampling
Chemical Mixing
Chemical Mixing
Liquid into Gas
Liquid into Gas
Gas into Liquid
Gas into Liquid
Concentrated Acid Solutions
Concentrated Acid Solutions